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วันศุกร์ที่ 20 พฤศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2552

เรียนภาษาไทย

เรียนภาษาไทยจากรูปภาพและวีดิโอ Learn Thai Language from picture and video

The steps of learning are as follows:
1. Learn what the differences are.
2. Learn to recognize these differences.
3. Learn to imitate the new sounds correctly.
4. Learn to form correct speech habits through drills




พยัญชนะไทย Thai Alphabet

พยัญชนะไทย มีทั้งหมด 44 รูป There are 44 alphabetic symbols in Thai.

THAI ALPHABETIC SYMBOL



The following are the two special alphabetic symbols:
ฤๅ












สระภาษาไทย Thai Vowels


Vowels are indicated in Thai orthography by symbols added to the preceding consonants. Some of the vowels symbols will be written above, some below, some before, and some after the consonant symbols. In some cases, a vowels will occupy more than one of these positions.


VOWELS
In the following description, a " อ " is used to indicate the various consonant symbols, and the vowel is drawn in relation to it.
Short Thai Name ..................Long Thai Name
- ะ (อะ )........................................ -า (อา)
ื (อิ ) ........................................... ี (อี)
ึ (อึ) ........................................... ื (อื)
ุ (อุ) ...........................................ู (อู)
เ -ะ (เอะ) ....................................... เ - (เอ)
แ-ะ (แอะ) ...................................... แ - (แอ)
เ - ะ (เอะ) ...................................... เ - (เอ)
เ -าะ (เอาะ) ................................... -อ (ออ )
โ - ะ (โอะ) ...................................... โ - (โอ )
Diphthongs
A diphthong is a combination of vowels pronounced together as one syllable. There are three such combinations in Thai.
เียะ (เอียะ) .......................................เีย (เอีย)
เียะ (เอืยะ) .......................................เือ (เอือ)
ัวะ (อัวะ) .........................................ัว (อัว)
Special Vowel Symbols:
ใ - (ใอ )...........................................ไ - (ไอ )
เ -า (เอา) ..........................................ํา (อำ )


Notes:
1. Most vowels are in pair of short and long.
2. Some vowels are written before the consonants, some after, some above, and some below.
3. A vowel that consists of one symbol is called a ‘simple vowel’ and one that consists of more than one symbol is called a ‘compound vowel’. A compound vowel is a combination of simple vowels.
4. ออ , consonant No. 41 in the consonant symbols list, is actually a symbols to indicate the absence of consonant value. Thai is, it is used to show that the position in which it appears consists of vowel only.
5. The special vowels have some arbitrary rules to govern them as follow:
ํา /am/ is used in a pure Thai word which is pronounced with the vowel /a/ followed by /m/.

Example :

cam จำ 'remember' , 'memorize'

dam ดำ 'black'

kam กำ 'grab'



ั ม /am/ is the symbol used in a load word.
Example:

samphat สัมผัส 'touch'
ใ_ /sara ay (maymuen) can be used in only these 20 words :


fay ใฝ่ 'try to' , 'alert'

cay ใจ 'mind'

may ใหม่ 'new'

say ใส 'transparent'

nay ใน 'in'
hay ให้ 'give'

khray ใคร 'who?'

yay ใย 'web'

day ใด 'any'

longlay หลงใหล 'fascinate'

saphay สะใภ้ 'daughter-in-law'

say ใส่ 'wear', 'put on'

bay ใบ้ 'dumb'

bay ใบ 'leaf', 'sail'

tay ใต้ 'under'

yay ใหญ่ 'big'

klay ใกล้ 'near'

chay ใช่ '(that's) right'

chay ใช้ 'spend', 'use'


ไ_ /sara ay maymalay is used elsewhere in words containing the sound /ay/.

Examples :

nay ไน 'spinning wheel'

maanay หมาไน 'hyena'

say ไส 'push', 'plain'

takhray ตะไคร่ 'moss'

banday บันได 'stairs', 'steps'

lay ไหล 'flow'

tay ไต 'kidney'

tay ไต้ 'torch'

tabay ตะไบ 'file' (tool)


เ_า /sara aw is used when the sound /a/ followed by /w/ is needed.

taw เต่า 'turtle'

khaw เขา 'hill', 'he', 'horn'

phaw เผา 'burn' 'put into a fire'






Tones

Thai has five tones (mid-level, low, falling, high, rising) but there are four tone marks. There are four factors to determine tones in Thai syllables.

1. Classes of the Consonants.
Thai consonants are divided into three classes:


HIGH        อักษรสูง

                ผ           ถ   ฐ            ฉ             ข             ฝ              ศ   ษ   ส             ห



MID           อักษรกลาง


                ป            บ                ต              ค             จ              ก



LOW           อักษรต่ำ


                 พ  ภ           ท   ธ           ช   ฌ           ค   ฆ           ฟ 

   
                                  ฒ   ฑ 
     
                  ม               น                ง                 ร                 ล



2.     The present of a short vowel will alter the tone.
  
          Examples: 
                            กะ          'estimate'    'approximate'         MID    consonant
                            จะ           'will'     ,     'shall'                    MID    consonant
                            คะ           'woman's polite word'              LOW   consonant                 
                            ถะ                -                                       HIGH  consonant


3.      The final letter can change tone. There are two kinds of the Thai final consonants:
          stops and sonorants.
       
         Examples :
       
         STOP                                                               SONORANT

         khaat                ขาด                                           khaan                    ขาน
         'wear out'                                                           'response the calling'
       
          saat                  สาด                                           saam                    สาม       
           'splash'                                                              'three'

           taak                  ตาก                                           taay                     ตาย
            'dry'  v   [in the sun]                                           'die'

            yaak                  ยาก                                           yaaw                   ยาว
             'difficut'                                                              'long'












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1 ความคิดเห็น:

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    Kind Regards
    Evelina


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